الثلاثاء، 31 مايو، 2011

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  • FreeBSD Installation Steps


  1. Start with your computer turned off.
  2. Turn on the computer. As it starts it should display an option to enter the system set up menu, or BIOS, commonly reached by keys like F2F10Del, or Alt+S. Use whichever keystroke is indicated on screen. In some cases your computer may display a graphic while it starts. Typically, pressing Esc will dismiss the graphic and allow you to see the necessary messages.
  3. Find the setting that controls which devices the system boots from. This is usually labeled as the “Boot Order” and commonly shown as a list of devices, such as FloppyCDROM,First Hard Disk, and so on.
    If you are booting from the CDROM then make sure that the CDROM is selected. If you are booting from a USB disk or a floppy disk then make sure that is selected instead. In case of doubt, you should consult the manual that came with your computer, and/or its motherboard.
    Make the change, then save and exit. The computer should now restart.
  4. If you prepared a “bootable” USB stick, as described in Section 2.3.7, then plug in your USB stick before turning on the computer.
    If you are booting from CDROM, then you will need to turn on the computer, and insert the CDROM at the first opportunity.
    Note: For FreeBSD 7.X, installation boot floppies are available and can be prepared as described in Section 2.3.7. One of them will be the first boot disc:boot.flp. Put this disc in your floppy drive and boot the computer.
    If your computer starts up as normal and loads your existing operating system, then either:
    1. The disks were not inserted early enough in the boot process. Leave them in, and try restarting your computer.
    2. The BIOS changes earlier did not work correctly. You should redo that step until you get the right option.
    3. Your particular BIOS does not support booting from the desired media.
  5. FreeBSD will start to boot. If you are booting from CDROM you will see a display similar to this (version information omitted):
    Booting from CD-Rom...
    645MB medium detected
    g the boot lo
    CD Loader 1.2 Buildi nader arguments
    /LOADER... Found Relocating the
    Looking up /BOO Tloader and the BTX Starting the BTX loader
    internal video/keyboard BIOS CD is
    BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.02 Consoles : cd0 BIOS drive C: is disk0 BIOS drive D: is disk1
    ootstrap loader, Revision 1.1 Loadi
    BIOS 636kB/261056kB available memory FreeBSD/i386 bng /boot/defaults/loader.conf
    a0 data=0xa4e80+0xa9e40 syms=[0x4+0x6cac0+0x4+0x88e9d] \
    /boot/kernel/kernel text=0x64d
    a
    If you are booting from floppy disc, you will see a display similar to this (version information omitted):
    Booting from Floppy...
    Uncompressing ... done
    BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.01
    video/keyboard BIOS drive A: is
    Console: interna l disk0 BIOS drive C: is disk1
    ory FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader,
    BIOS 639kB/261120kB available me mRevision 1.1 Loading /boot/defaults/loader.conf
    rt disk labelled "Kernel floppy 1" and press
    /kernel text=0x277391 data=0x3268c+0x332a8 | Ins
    e any key...
    Follow these instructions by removing the boot.flp disc, insert the kern1.flp disc, and press Enter. Boot from first floppy; when prompted, insert the other disks as required.
  6. Whether you booted from CDROM, USB stick or floppy, the boot process will then get to the FreeBSD boot loader menu:

    Figure 2-1. FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu
    Either wait ten seconds, or press Enter.

2.4.1.2 Booting for SPARC64®

Most SPARC64® systems are set up to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD, you need to boot over the network or from a CDROM, which requires you to break into the PROM (OpenFirmware).
To do this, reboot the system, and wait until the boot message appears. It depends on the model, but should look about like:
Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present
Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.
Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.
If your system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, you need to press L1+A or Stop+A on the keyboard, or send a BREAK over the serial console (using for example ~# in tip(1) or cu(1)) to get to the PROM prompt. It looks like this:
ok (1)
ok {0} (2)

(1)
This is the prompt used on systems with just one CPU.
(2)
This is the prompt used on SMP systems, the digit indicates the number of the active CPU.
At this point, place the CDROM into your drive, and from the PROM prompt, type boot cdrom.

2.4.2 Reviewing the Device Probe Results

The last few hundred lines that have been displayed on screen are stored and can be reviewed.
To review the buffer, press Scroll Lock. This turns on scrolling in the display. You can then use the arrow keys, or PageUp and PageDown to view the results. Press Scroll Lock again to stop scrolling.
Do this now, to review the text that scrolled off the screen when the kernel was carrying out the device probes. You will see text similar to Figure 2-2, although the precise text will differ depending on the devices that you have in your computer.

Figure 2-2. Typical Device Probe Results
avail memory = 253050880 (247120K bytes)
Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0817000.
Preloaded mfs_root "/mfsroot" at 0xc0817084.
at 0xc03ddcd4 md1: Malloc disk Using $PIR table, 4 entrie
md0: Preloaded image </mfsroot> 4423680 byte ss at 0xc00fde60 npx0: <math processor> on motherboard npx0: INT 16 interface
8MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge> a
pcib0: <Host to PCI bridge> on motherboard pci0: <PCI bus> on pcib0 pcib1:<VIA 82C5 9t device 1.0 on pci0 pci1: <PCI bus> on pcib1 pci1: <Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator> at 0.0 irq 11
ontroller> port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0 ata0
isab0: <VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge> at device 7.0 on pci0 isa0: <iSA bus> on isab0 atapci0: <VIA 82C586 ATA33 c: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0 ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0 uhci0 <VIA 83C572 USB controller> port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci 0
emovable, self powered pci0: <unknown car
usb0: <VIA 83572 USB controller> on uhci0 usb0: USB revision 1.0 uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr1 uhub0: 2 ports with 2 rd> (vendor=0x1106, dev=0x3040) at 7.3 dc0: <ADMtek AN985 10/100BaseTX> port 0xe800-0xe8ff mem 0xdb000000-0xeb0003ff ir q 11 at device 8.0 on pci0 dc0: Ethernet address: 00:04:5a:74:6b:b5
rt 0xec00-0xec1f irq 9 at
miibus0: <MII bus> on dc0 ukphy0: <Generic IEEE 802.3u media interface> on miibus0 ukphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto ed0: <NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)> p o device 10. 0 on pci0 ed0 address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit) isa0: too many dependant configs (8) isa0: unexpected small tag 14 orm0: <Option ROM> at iomem 0xc0000-0xc7fff on isa0
t port 0x60,0x64 on isa0 atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> flags 0x1 irq1 on atkbdc0
fdc0: <NEC 72065B or clone> at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq2 on isa0 fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold fd0: <1440-KB 3.5'' drive> on fdc0 drive 0 atkbdc0: <Keyboard controller (i8042)> a kbd0 at atkbd0 psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0 psm0: model Generic PS/@ mouse, device ID 0 vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0 sc0: <System console> at flags 0x100 on isa0 sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300>
16/16/15 bytes threshold plip0: <PLIP network int
sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0 sio0: type 16550A sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0 sio1: type 16550A ppc0: <Parallel port> at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0 pppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode ppc0: FIFO with erface> on ppbus0 ad0: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata0-master UDMA33 acd0: CD-RW <LITE-ON LTR-1210B> at ata1-slave PIO4 Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
/stand/sysinstall running as init on vty0
Check the probe results carefully to make sure that FreeBSD found all the devices you expected. If a device was not found, then it will not be listed. A custom kernel allows you to add in support for devices which are not in the GENERIC kernel, such as sound cards.
After the procedure of device probing, you will see Figure 2-3. Use the arrow key to choose a country, region, or group. Then press Enter, it will set your country easily.

Figure 2-3. Selecting Country Menu
If you selected United States as country, the standard American keyboard map will be used, if a different country is chosen the following menu will be displayed. Use the arrow keys to choose the correct keyboard map and press Enter.

Figure 2-4. Selecting Keyboard Menu
After the country selecting, the sysinstall main menu will display.

The sysinstall utility is the installation application provided by the FreeBSD Project. It is console based and is divided into a number of menus and screens that you can use to configure and control the installation process.
The sysinstall menu system is controlled by the arrow keys, EnterTabSpace, and other keys. A detailed description of these keys and what they do is contained in sysinstall's usage information.
To review this information, ensure that the Usage entry is highlighted and that the [Select] button is selected, as shown in Figure 2-5, then press Enter.
The instructions for using the menu system will be displayed. After reviewing them, press Enter to return to the Main Menu.

Figure 2-5. Selecting Usage from Sysinstall Main Menu

2.5.1 Selecting the Documentation Menu

From the Main Menu, select Doc with the arrow keys and press Enter.

Figure 2-6. Selecting Documentation Menu
This will display the Documentation Menu.

Figure 2-7. Sysinstall Documentation Menu
It is important to read the documents provided.
To view a document, select it with the arrow keys and press Enter. When finished reading a document, pressing Enter will return to the Documentation Menu.
To return to the Main Installation Menu, select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter.

2.5.2 Selecting the Keymap Menu

To change the keyboard mapping, use the arrow keys to select Keymap from the menu and press Enter. This is only required if you are using a non-standard or non-US keyboard.

Figure 2-8. Sysinstall Main Menu
A different keyboard mapping may be chosen by selecting the menu item using up/down arrow keys and pressing Space. Pressing Space again will unselect the item. When finished, choose the[ OK ] using the arrow keys and press Enter.
Only a partial list is shown in this screen representation. Selecting [ Cancel ] by pressing Tab will use the default keymap and return to the Main Install Menu.

Figure 2-9. Sysinstall Keymap Menu

2.5.3 Installation Options Screen

Select Options and press Enter.

Figure 2-10. Sysinstall Main Menu

Figure 2-11. Sysinstall Options
The default values are usually fine for most users and do not need to be changed. The release name will vary according to the version being installed.
The description of the selected item will appear at the bottom of the screen highlighted in blue. Notice that one of the options is Use Defaults to reset all values to startup defaults.
Press F1 to read the help screen about the various options.
Pressing Q will return to the Main Install menu.

2.5.4 Begin a Standard Installation

The Standard installation is the option recommended for those new to UNIX® or FreeBSD. Use the arrow keys to select Standard and then press Enter to start the installation.
Figure 2-12. Begin Standard Installation

Your first task is to allocate disk space for FreeBSD, and label that space so that sysinstall can prepare it. In order to do this you need to know how FreeBSD expects to find information on the disk.

2.6.1 BIOS Drive Numbering

Before you install and configure FreeBSD on your system, there is an important subject that you should be aware of, especially if you have multiple hard drives.
In a PC running a BIOS-dependent operating system such as MS-DOS® or Microsoft® Windows®, the BIOS is able to abstract the normal disk drive order, and the operating system goes along with the change. This allows the user to boot from a disk drive other than the so-called “primary master”. This is especially convenient for some users who have found that the simplest and cheapest way to keep a system backup is to buy an identical second hard drive, and perform routine copies of the first drive to the second drive using Ghost® or XCOPY . Then, if the first drive fails, or is attacked by a virus, or is scribbled upon by an operating system defect, he can easily recover by instructing the BIOS to logically swap the drives. It is like switching the cables on the drives, but without having to open the case.
More expensive systems with SCSI controllers often include BIOS extensions which allow the SCSI drives to be re-ordered in a similar fashion for up to seven drives.
A user who is accustomed to taking advantage of these features may become surprised when the results with FreeBSD are not as expected. FreeBSD does not use the BIOS, and does not know the “logical BIOS drive mapping”. This can lead to very perplexing situations, especially when drives are physically identical in geometry, and have also been made as data clones of one another.
When using FreeBSD, always restore the BIOS to natural drive numbering before installing FreeBSD, and then leave it that way. If you need to switch drives around, then do so, but do it the hard way, and open the case and move the jumpers and cables.

2.6.2 Creating Slices Using FDisk

Note: No changes you make at this point will be written to the disk. If you think you have made a mistake and want to start again you can use the menus to exitsysinstall and try again or press U to use the Undo option. If you get confused and can not see how to exit you can always turn your computer off.
After choosing to begin a standard installation in sysinstall you will be shown this message:
Message
In the next menu, you will need to set up a DOS-style ("fdisk")
partitioning scheme for your hard disk. If you simply wish to devote
all disk space to FreeBSD (overwriting anything else that might be on
the disk(s) selected) then use the (A)ll command to select the default
partitioning scheme followed by a (Q)uit. If you wish to allocate only
(C)reate command. [ OK ]
free space to FreeBSD, move to a partition marked "unused" and use the
[ Press enter or space ]
Press Enter as instructed. You will then be shown a list of all the hard drives that the kernel found when it carried out the device probes. Figure 2-13 shows an example from a system with two IDE disks. They have been called ad0 and ad2.

Figure 2-13. Select Drive for FDisk
You might be wondering why ad1 is not listed here. Why has it been missed?
Consider what would happen if you had two IDE hard disks, one as the master on the first IDE controller, and one as the master on the second IDE controller. If FreeBSD numbered these as it found them, as ad0 and ad1 then everything would work.
But if you then added a third disk, as the slave device on the first IDE controller, it would now be ad1, and the previous ad1 would become ad2. Because device names (such as ad1s1a) are used to find filesystems, you may suddenly discover that some of your filesystems no longer appear correctly, and you would need to change your FreeBSD configuration.
To work around this, the kernel can be configured to name IDE disks based on where they are, and not the order in which they were found. With this scheme the master disk on the second IDE controller will always be ad2, even if there are no ad0 or ad1 devices.
This configuration is the default for the FreeBSD kernel, which is why this display shows ad0 and ad2. The machine on which this screenshot was taken had IDE disks on both master channels of the IDE controllers, and no disks on the slave channels.
You should select the disk on which you want to install FreeBSD, and then press [ OK ]FDisk will start, with a display similar to that shown in Figure 2-14.
The FDisk display is broken into three sections.
The first section, covering the first two lines of the display, shows details about the currently selected disk, including its FreeBSD name, the disk geometry, and the total size of the disk.
The second section shows the slices that are currently on the disk, where they start and end, how large they are, the name FreeBSD gives them, and their description and sub-type. This example shows two small unused slices, which are artifacts of disk layout schemes on the PC. It also shows one large FAT slice, which almost certainly appears as C: in MS-DOS / Windows, and an extended slice, which may contain other drive letters for MS-DOS / Windows.
The third section shows the commands that are available in FDisk.

Figure 2-14. Typical Fdisk Partitions before Editing
What you do now will depend on how you want to slice up your disk.
If you want to use FreeBSD for the entire disk (which will delete all the other data on this disk when you confirm that you want sysinstall to continue later in the installation process) then you can press A, which corresponds to the Use Entire Disk option. The existing slices will be removed, and replaced with a small area flagged as unused (again, an artifact of PC disk layout), and then one large slice for FreeBSD. If you do this, then you should select the newly created FreeBSD slice using the arrow keys, and press S to mark the slice as being bootable. The screen will then look very similar to Figure 2-15. Note the A in the Flags column, which indicates that this slice is active, and will be booted from.
If you will be deleting an existing slice to make space for FreeBSD then you should select the slice using the arrow keys, and then press D. You can then press C, and be prompted for size of slice you want to create. Enter the appropriate figure and press Enter. The default value in this box represents the largest possible slice you can make, which could be the largest contiguous block of unallocated space or the size of the entire hard disk.
If you have already made space for FreeBSD (perhaps by using a tool such as PartitionMagic®) then you can press C to create a new slice. Again, you will be prompted for the size of slice you would like to create.

Figure 2-15. Fdisk Partition Using Entire Disk
When finished, press Q. Your changes will be saved in sysinstall, but will not yet be written to disk.

2.6.3 Install a Boot Manager

You now have the option to install a boot manager. In general, you should choose to install the FreeBSD boot manager if:
  • You have more than one drive, and have installed FreeBSD onto a drive other than the first one.
  • You have installed FreeBSD alongside another operating system on the same disk, and you want to choose whether to start FreeBSD or the other operating system when you start the computer.
If FreeBSD is going to be the only operating system on this machine, installed on the first hard disk, then the Standard boot manager will suffice. Choose None if you are using a third-party boot manager capable of booting FreeBSD.
Make your choice and press Enter.

Figure 2-16. Sysinstall Boot Manager Menu
The help screen, reached by pressing F1, discusses the problems that can be encountered when trying to share the hard disk between operating systems.

2.6.4 Creating Slices on Another Drive

If there is more than one drive, it will return to the Select Drives screen after the boot manager selection. If you wish to install FreeBSD on to more than one disk, then you can select another disk here and repeat the slice process using FDisk.
Important: If you are installing FreeBSD on a drive other than your first, then the FreeBSD boot manager needs to be installed on both drives.

Figure 2-17. Exit Select Drive
The Tab key toggles between the last drive selected, [ OK ], and [ Cancel ].
Press the Tab once to toggle to the [ OK ], then press Enter to continue with the installation.

2.6.5 Creating Partitions Using Disklabel

You must now create some partitions inside each slice that you have just created. Remember that each partition is lettered, from a through to h, and that partitions bc, and d have conventional meanings that you should adhere to.
Certain applications can benefit from particular partition schemes, especially if you are laying out partitions across more than one disk. However, for this, your first FreeBSD installation, you do not need to give too much thought to how you partition the disk. It is more important that you install FreeBSD and start learning how to use it. You can always re-install FreeBSD to change your partition scheme when you are more familiar with the operating system.
This scheme features four partitions--one for swap space, and three for filesystems.

Table 2-2. Partition Layout for First Disk
PartitionFilesystemSizeDescription
a/1 GBThis is the root filesystem. Every other filesystem will be mounted somewhere under this one. 1 GB is a reasonable size for this filesystem. You will not be storing too much data on it, as a regular FreeBSD install will put about 128 MB of data here. The remaining space is for temporary data, and also leaves expansion space if future versions of FreeBSD need more space in /.
bN/A2-3 x RAMThe system's swap space is kept on the b partition. Choosing the right amount of swap space can be a bit of an art. A good rule of thumb is that your swap space should be two or three times as much as the available physical memory (RAM). You should also have at least 64 MB of swap, so if you have less than 32 MB of RAM in your computer then set the swap amount to 64 MB.
If you have more than one disk then you can put swap space on each disk. FreeBSD will then use each disk for swap, which effectively speeds up the act of swapping. In this case, calculate the total amount of swap you need (e.g., 128 MB), and then divide this by the number of disks you have (e.g., two disks) to give the amount of swap you should put on each disk, in this example, 64 MB of swap per disk.
e/var512 MB to 4096 MBThe /var directory contains files that are constantly varying; log files, and other administrative files. Many of these files are read-from or written-to extensively during FreeBSD's day-to-day running. Putting these files on another filesystem allows FreeBSD to optimize the access of these files without affecting other files in other directories that do not have the same access pattern.
f/usrRest of disk (at least 8 GB)All your other files will typically be stored in /usr and its subdirectories.
Warning: The values above are given as example and should be used by experienced users only. Users are encouraged to use the automatic partition layout called Auto Defaults by the FreeBSD partition editor.
If you will be installing FreeBSD on to more than one disk then you must also create partitions in the other slices that you configured. The easiest way to do this is to create two partitions on each disk, one for the swap space, and one for a filesystem.

Table 2-3. Partition Layout for Subsequent Disks
PartitionFilesystemSizeDescription
bN/ASee descriptionAs already discussed, you can split swap space across each disk. Even though the apartition is free, convention dictates that swap space stays on the b partition.
e/disknRest of diskThe rest of the disk is taken up with one big partition. This could easily be put on thea partition, instead of the e partition. However, convention says that the a partition on a slice is reserved for the filesystem that will be the root (/) filesystem. You do not have to follow this convention, but sysinstall does, so following it yourself makes the installation slightly cleaner. You can choose to mount this filesystem anywhere; this example suggests that you mount them as directories /diskn, wheren is a number that changes for each disk. But you can use another scheme if you prefer.
Having chosen your partition layout you can now create it using sysinstall. You will see this message:
Message
Now, you need to create BSD partitions inside of the fdisk
partition(s) just created. If you have a reasonable amount of disk
space (1GB or more) and don't have any special requirements, simply
use the (A)uto command to allocate space automatically. If you have
uto, press F1 for more information on manual layout.
more specific needs or just don't care for the layout chosen by (A ) [ OK ]
enter or space ]
[ Press
Press Enter to start the FreeBSD partition editor, called Disklabel.
Figure 2-18 shows the display when you first start Disklabel. The display is divided in to three sections.
The first few lines show the name of the disk you are currently working on, and the slice that contains the partitions you are creating (at this point Disklabel calls this the Partition name rather than slice name). This display also shows the amount of free space within the slice; that is, space that was set aside in the slice, but that has not yet been assigned to a partition.
The middle of the display shows the partitions that have been created, the name of the filesystem that each partition contains, their size, and some options pertaining to the creation of the filesystem.
The bottom third of the screen shows the keystrokes that are valid in Disklabel.

Figure 2-18. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor
Disklabel can automatically create partitions for you and assign them default sizes. The default sizes are calculated with the help of an internal partition sizing algorithm based on the disk size. Try this now, by Pressing A. You will see a display similar to that shown in Figure 2-19. Depending on the size of the disk you are using, the defaults may or may not be appropriate. This does not matter, as you do not have to accept the defaults.
Note: The default partitioning assigns the /tmp directory its own partition instead of being part of the / partition. This helps avoid filling the / partition with temporary files.

Figure 2-19. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor with Auto Defaults
If you choose to not use the default partitions and wish to replace them with your own, use the arrow keys to select the first partition, and press D to delete it. Repeat this to delete all the suggested partitions.
To create the first partition (a, mounted as / -- root), make sure the proper disk slice at the top of the screen is selected and press C. A dialog box will appear prompting you for the size of the new partition (as shown in Figure 2-20). You can enter the size as the number of disk blocks you want to use, or as a number followed by either M for megabytes, G for gigabytes, or C for cylinders.

Figure 2-20. Free Space for Root Partition
The default size shown will create a partition that takes up the rest of the slice. If you are using the partition sizes described in the earlier example, then delete the existing figure using Backspace, and then type in 512M, as shown in Figure 2-21. Then press [ OK ].

Figure 2-21. Edit Root Partition Size
Having chosen the partition's size you will then be asked whether this partition will contain a filesystem or swap space. The dialog box is shown in Figure 2-22. This first partition will contain a filesystem, so check that FS is selected and press Enter.

Figure 2-22. Choose the Root Partition Type
Finally, because you are creating a filesystem, you must tell Disklabel where the filesystem is to be mounted. The dialog box is shown in Figure 2-23. The root filesystem's mount point is /, so type /, and then press Enter.

Figure 2-23. Choose the Root Mount Point
The display will then update to show you the newly created partition. You should repeat this procedure for the other partitions. When you create the swap partition, you will not be prompted for the filesystem mount point, as swap partitions are never mounted. When you create the final partition, /usr, you can leave the suggested size as is, to use the rest of the slice.
Your final FreeBSD DiskLabel Editor screen will appear similar to Figure 2-24, although your values chosen may be different. Press Q to finish.
Figure 2-24. Sysinstall Disklabel Editor

2.7.1 Select the Distribution Set

Deciding which distribution set to install will depend largely on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space available. The predefined options range from installing the smallest possible configuration to everything. Those who are new to UNIX® and/or FreeBSD should almost certainly select one of these canned options. Customizing a distribution set is typically for the more experienced user.
Press F1 for more information on the distribution set options and what they contain. When finished reviewing the help, pressing Enter will return to the Select Distributions Menu.
If a graphical user interface is desired then the configuration of the X server and selection of a default desktop must be done after the installation of FreeBSD. More information regarding the installation and configuration of a X server can be found in Chapter 5.
If compiling a custom kernel is anticipated, select an option which includes the source code. For more information on why a custom kernel should be built or how to build a custom kernel, seeChapter 8.
Obviously, the most versatile system is one that includes everything. If there is adequate disk space, select All as shown in Figure 2-25 by using the arrow keys and press Enter. If there is a concern about disk space consider using an option that is more suitable for the situation. Do not fret over the perfect choice, as other distributions can be added after installation.

Figure 2-25. Choose Distributions

2.7.2 Installing the Ports Collection

After selecting the desired distribution, an opportunity to install the FreeBSD Ports Collection is presented. The ports collection is an easy and convenient way to install software. The Ports Collection does not contain the source code necessary to compile the software. Instead, it is a collection of files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-party software packages.Chapter 4 discusses how to use the ports collection.
The installation program does not check to see if you have adequate space. Select this option only if you have adequate hard disk space. As of FreeBSD 8.2, the FreeBSD Ports Collection takes up about 417 MB of disk space. You can safely assume a larger value for more recent versions of FreeBSD.
User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to install the FreeBSD ports collection?
This will give you ready access to over 20,000 ported software packages,
at a cost of around 417 MB of disk space when "clean" and possibly much
you have the extra CDs from a FreeBSD CD/DVD distribution avail
more than that if a lot of the distribution tarballs are loaded (unless able and can mount it on /cdrom, in which case this is far less of a problem).
sr partition, so it is advisable to say Yes to this option. For more
The Ports Collection is a very valuable resource and well worth having on your / u information on the Ports Collection & the latest ports, visit: http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports
[ Yes ] No
Select [ Yes ] with the arrow keys to install the Ports Collection or [ No ] to skip this option. Press Enter to continue. The Choose Distributions menu will redisplay.

Figure 2-26. Confirm Distributions
If satisfied with the options, select Exit with the arrow keys, ensure that [ OK ] is highlighted, and pressing Enter to continue.

2.8 Choosing Your Installation Media

If Installing from a CDROM or DVD, use the arrow keys to highlight Install from a FreeBSD CD/DVD. Ensure that [ OK ] is highlighted, then press Enter to proceed with the installation.
For other methods of installation, select the appropriate option and follow the instructions.
Press F1 to display the Online Help for installation media. Press Enter to return to the media selection menu.

Figure 2-27. Choose Installation Media
FTP Installation Modes: There are three FTP installation modes you can choose from: active FTP, passive FTP, or via a HTTP proxy.

FTP Active: Install from an FTP server
This option will make all FTP transfers use “Active” mode. This will not work through firewalls, but will often work with older FTP servers that do not support passive mode. If your connection hangs with passive mode (the default), try active!
FTP Passive: Install from an FTP server through a firewall
This option instructs sysinstall to use “Passive” mode for all FTP operations. This allows the user to pass through firewalls that do not allow incoming connections on random TCP ports.
FTP via a HTTP proxy: Install from an FTP server through a http proxy
This option instructs sysinstall to use the HTTP protocol (like a web browser) to connect to a proxy for all FTP operations. The proxy will translate the requests and send them to the FTP server. This allows the user to pass through firewalls that do not allow FTP at all, but offer a HTTP proxy. In this case, you have to specify the proxy in addition to the FTP server.
For a proxy FTP server, you should usually give the name of the server you really want as a part of the username, after an “@” sign. The proxy server then “fakes” the real server. For example, assuming you want to install from ftp.FreeBSD.org, using the proxy FTP server foo.example.com, listening on port 1234.
In this case, you go to the options menu, set the FTP username to ftp@ftp.FreeBSD.org, and the password to your email address. As your installation media, you specify FTP (or passive FTP, if the proxy supports it), and the URL ftp://foo.example.com:1234/pub/FreeBSD.
Since /pub/FreeBSD from ftp.FreeBSD.org is proxied under foo.example.com, you are able to install from that machine (which will fetch the files fromftp.FreeBSD.org as your installation requests them).


2.9 Committing to the Installation

The installation can now proceed if desired. This is also the last chance for aborting the installation to prevent changes to the hard drive.
User Confirmation Requested
Last Chance! Are you SURE you want to continue the installation?
If you're running this on a disk with data you wish to save then WE
STRONGLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE PROPER BACKUPS before proceeding!
[ Yes ] No
We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!
Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to proceed.
The installation time will vary according to the distribution chosen, installation media, and the speed of the computer. There will be a series of messages displayed indicating the status.
The installation is complete when the following message is displayed:
Message
ongratulations! You now have FreeBSD installed on your system.
C We will now move on to the final configuration questions.
. If you wish to re-enter this utility after the system is up
For any option you do not wish to configure, simply select N o, you may do so by typing: /usr/sbin/sysinstall. [ OK ]
[ Press enter or space ]
Press Enter to proceed with post-installation configurations.
Selecting [ No ] and pressing Enter will abort the installation so no changes will be made to your system. The following message will appear:
Message
Installation complete with some errors. You may wish to scroll
through the debugging messages on VTY1 with the scroll-lock feature.
You can also choose "No" at the next prompt and go back into the
[ OK ]
installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
This message is generated because nothing was installed. Pressing Enter will return to the Main Installation Menu to exit the installation.

2.10 Post-installation

Configuration of various options follows the successful installation. An option can be configured by re-entering the configuration options before booting the new FreeBSD system or after installation using sysinstall and selecting Configure.

2.10.1 Network Device Configuration

If you previously configured PPP for an FTP install, this screen will not display and can be configured later as described above.
For detailed information on Local Area Networks and configuring FreeBSD as a gateway/router refer to the Advanced Networking chapter.
User Confirmation Requested 
   Would you like to configure any Ethernet or PPP network devices?

                             [ Yes ]   No
To configure a network device, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. Otherwise, select [ No ] to continue.
Figure 2-28. Selecting an Ethernet Device
Select the interface to be configured with the arrow keys and press Enter.
User Confirmation Requested 
       Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface?

                              Yes   [ No ]
In this private local area network, the current Internet type protocol (IPv4) was sufficient and [ No ] was selected with the arrow keys and Enter pressed.
If you are connected to an existing IPv6 network with an RA server, then choose [ Yes ] and press Enter. It will take several seconds to scan for RA servers.
User Confirmation Requested 
        Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface?

                              Yes   [ No ]
If DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is not required select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press Enter.
Selecting [ Yes ] will execute dhclient, and if successful, will fill in the network configuration information automatically. Refer to Section 29.5 for more information.
The following Network Configuration screen shows the configuration of the Ethernet device for a system that will act as the gateway for a Local Area Network.
Figure 2-29. Set Network Configuration for ed0
Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriate information:


Host
The fully-qualified hostname, such as k6-2.example.com in this case.
Domain
The name of the domain that your machine is in, such as example.com for this case.
IPv4 Gateway
IP address of host forwarding packets to non-local destinations. You must fill this in if the machine is a node on the network. Leave this field blank if the machine is the gateway to the Internet for the network. The IPv4 Gateway is also known as the default gateway or default route.
Name server
IP address of your local DNS server. There is no local DNS server on this private local area network so the IP address of the provider's DNS server (208.163.10.2) was used.
IPv4 address
The IP address to be used for this interface was 192.168.0.1
Netmask
The address block being used for this local area network is 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.0.255 with a netmask of 255.255.255.0.
Extra options to ifconfig
Any interface-specific options to ifconfig you would like to add. There were none in this case.
Use Tab to select [ OK ] when finished and press Enter.
User Confirmation Requested 
        Would you like to bring the ed0 interface up right now?

                             [ Yes ]   No
Choosing [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will bring the machine up on the network and be ready for use. However, this does not accomplish much during installation, since the machine still needs to be rebooted.

2.10.2 Configure Gateway

User Confirmation Requested 
       Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway?

                              [ Yes ]    No
If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area network and forwarding packets between other machines then select [ Yes ] and press Enter. If the machine is a node on a network then select [ No ] and press Enter to continue.

2.10.3 Configure Internet Services

User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?

                               Yes   [ No ]
If [ No ] is selected, various services such telnetd will not be enabled. This means that remote users will not be able to telnet into this machine. Local users will still be able to access remote machines with telnet.
These services can be enabled after installation by editing /etc/inetd.conf with your favorite text editor. See Section 29.2.1 for more information.
Select [ Yes ] if you wish to configure these services during install. An additional confirmation will display:
User Confirmation Requested
The Internet Super Server (inetd) allows a number of simple Internet
services to be enabled, including finger, ftp and telnetd.  Enabling
these services may increase risk of security problems by increasing
the exposure of your system.

With this in mind, do you wish to enable inetd?

                             [ Yes ]   No
Select [ Yes ] to continue.
User Confirmation Requested
inetd(8) relies on its configuration file, /etc/inetd.conf, to determine
which of its Internet services will be available.  The default FreeBSD
inetd.conf(5) leaves all services disabled by default, so they must be
specifically enabled in the configuration file before they will
function, even once inetd(8) is enabled.  Note that services for
IPv6 must be separately enabled from IPv4 services.

Select [Yes] now to invoke an editor on /etc/inetd.conf, or [No] to
use the current settings.

                             [ Yes ]   No
Selecting [ Yes ] will allow adding services by deleting the # at the beginning of a line.
Figure 2-30. Editing inetd.conf
After adding the desired services, pressing Esc will display a menu which will allow exiting and saving the changes.

2.10.4 Enabling SSH login

User Confirmation Requested
                  Would you like to enable SSH login?
                           Yes        [  No  ]
Selecting [ Yes ] will enable sshd(8), the daemon program for OpenSSH. This will allow secure remote access to your machine. For more information about OpenSSH see Section 14.10.

2.10.5 Anonymous FTP

User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine? 

                              Yes    [ No ]

2.10.5.1 Deny Anonymous FTP

Selecting the default [ No ] and pressing Enter will still allow users who have accounts with passwords to use FTP to access the machine.

2.10.5.2 Allow Anonymous FTP

Anyone can access your machine if you elect to allow anonymous FTP connections. The security implications should be considered before enabling this option. For more information about security see Chapter 14.
To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select [ Yes ] and press Enter. An additional confirmation will display:
User Confirmation Requested
 Anonymous FTP permits un-authenticated users to connect to the system
 FTP server, if FTP service is enabled.  Anonymous users are
 restricted to a specific subset of the file system, and the default
 configuration provides a drop-box incoming directory to which uploads
 are permitted.  You must separately enable both inetd(8), and enable
 ftpd(8) in inetd.conf(5) for FTP services to be available.  If you
 did not do so earlier, you will have the opportunity to enable inetd(8)
 again later.

 If you want the server to be read-only you should leave the upload
 directory option empty and add the -r command-line option to ftpd(8)
 in inetd.conf(5)

 Do you wish to continue configuring anonymous FTP?

                          [ Yes ]         No
This message informs you that the FTP service will also have to be enabled in /etc/inetd.conf if you want to allow anonymous FTP connections, see Section 2.10.3. Select [ Yes ] and pressEnter to continue; the following screen will display:
Figure 2-31. Default Anonymous FTP Configuration
Use Tab to select the information fields and fill in appropriate information:


UID
The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous FTP user. All files uploaded will be owned by this ID.
Group
Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be in.
Comment
String describing this user in /etc/passwd.
FTP Root Directory
Where files available for anonymous FTP will be kept.
Upload Subdirectory
Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will go.
The FTP root directory will be put in /var by default. If you do not have enough room there for the anticipated FTP needs, the /usr directory could be used by setting the FTP root directory to/usr/ftp.
When you are satisfied with the values, press Enter to continue.
User Confirmation Requested 
         Create a welcome message file for anonymous FTP users?

                              [ Yes ]    No
If you select [ Yes ] and press Enter, an editor will automatically start allowing you to edit the message.
Figure 2-32. Edit the FTP Welcome Message
This is a text editor called ee. Use the instructions to change the message or change the message later using a text editor of your choice. Note the file name/location at the bottom of the editor screen.
Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue. Press Enter again to save changes if you made any.

2.10.6 Configure Network File System

Network File System (NFS) allows sharing of files across a network. A machine can be configured as a server, a client, or both. Refer to Section 29.3 for a more information.

2.10.6.1 NFS Server

User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server? 

                              Yes    [ No ]
If there is no need for a Network File System server, select [ No ] and press Enter.
If [ Yes ] is chosen, a message will pop-up indicating that the exports file must be created.
Message
Operating as an NFS server means that you must first configure an
/etc/exports file to indicate which hosts are allowed certain kinds of
access to your local filesystems.
Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
                               [ OK ]
Press Enter to continue. A text editor will start allowing the exports file to be created and edited.
Figure 2-33. Editing exports
Use the instructions to add the actual exported filesystems now or later using a text editor of your choice. Note the file name/location at the bottom of the editor screen.
Press Esc and a pop-up menu will default to a) leave editor. Press Enter to exit and continue.

2.10.6.2 NFS Client

The NFS client allows your machine to access NFS servers.
User Confirmation Requested
 Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client? 

                              Yes   [ No ]
With the arrow keys, select [ Yes ] or [ No ] as appropriate and press Enter.

2.10.7 System Console Settings

There are several options available to customize the system console.
User Confirmation Requested 
       Would you like to customize your system console settings?

                              [ Yes ]  No
To view and configure the options, select [ Yes ] and press Enter.
Figure 2-34. System Console Configuration Options
A commonly used option is the screen saver. Use the arrow keys to select Saver and then press Enter.
Figure 2-35. Screen Saver Options
Select the desired screen saver using the arrow keys and then press Enter. The System Console Configuration menu will redisplay.
The default time interval is 300 seconds. To change the time interval, select Saver again. At the Screen Saver Options menu, select Timeout using the arrow keys and press Enter. A pop-up menu will appear:
Figure 2-36. Screen Saver Timeout
The value can be changed, then select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the System Console Configuration menu.
Figure 2-37. System Console Configuration Exit
Selecting Exit and pressing Enter will continue with the post-installation configurations.

2.10.8 Setting the Time Zone

Setting the time zone for your machine will allow it to automatically correct for any regional time changes and perform other time zone related functions properly.
The example shown is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of the United States. Your selections will vary according to your geographical location.
User Confirmation Requested 
          Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?

                            [ Yes ]   No
Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to set the time zone.
User Confirmation Requested
 Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time
 or you don't know, please choose NO here! 

                              Yes   [ No ]
Select [ Yes ] or [ No ] according to how the machine's clock is configured and press Enter.
Figure 2-38. Select Your Region
The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing Enter.
Figure 2-39. Select Your Country
Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press Enter.
Figure 2-40. Select Your Time Zone
The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing Enter.
Confirmation 
            Does the abbreviation 'EDT' look reasonable?

                            [ Yes ]   No
Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it looks okay, press Enter to continue with the post-installation configuration.

2.10.9 Linux Compatibility

Note: This part only applies to FreeBSD 7.X installation, if you install FreeBSD 8.X this screen will not be proposed.
User Confirmation Requested 
          Would you like to enable Linux binary compatibility?

                            [ Yes ]   No
Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will allow running Linux software on FreeBSD. The install will add the appropriate packages for Linux compatibility.
If installing by FTP, the machine will need to be connected to the Internet. Sometimes a remote ftp site will not have all the distributions like the Linux binary compatibility. This can be installed later if necessary.

2.10.10 Mouse Settings

This option will allow you to cut and paste text in the console and user programs with a 3-button mouse. If using a 2-button mouse, refer to manual page, moused(8), after installation for details on emulating the 3-button style. This example depicts a non-USB mouse configuration (such as a PS/2 or COM port mouse):
User Confirmation Requested 
         Does this system have a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse?

                            [ Yes ]    No
Select [ Yes ] for a PS/2, serial or bus mouse, or [ No ] for a USB mouse and press Enter.
Figure 2-41. Select Mouse Protocol Type
Use the arrow keys to select Type and press Enter.
Figure 2-42. Set Mouse Protocol
The mouse used in this example is a PS/2 type, so the default Auto was appropriate. To change protocol, use the arrow keys to select another option. Ensure that [ OK ] is highlighted and pressEnter to exit this menu.
Figure 2-43. Configure Mouse Port
Use the arrow keys to select Port and press Enter.
Figure 2-44. Setting the Mouse Port
This system had a PS/2 mouse, so the default PS/2 was appropriate. To change the port, use the arrow keys and then press Enter.
Figure 2-45. Enable the Mouse Daemon
Last, use the arrow keys to select Enable, and press Enter to enable and test the mouse daemon.
Figure 2-46. Test the Mouse Daemon
Move the mouse around the screen and verify the cursor shown responds properly. If it does, select [ Yes ] and press Enter. If not, the mouse has not been configured correctly -- select [ No ] and try using different configuration options.
Select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to return to continue with the post-installation configuration.

2.10.11 Install Packages

Packages are pre-compiled binaries and are a convenient way to install software.
Installation of one package is shown for purposes of illustration. Additional packages can also be added at this time if desired. After installation sysinstall can be used to add additional packages.
User Confirmation Requested
 The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of
 ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers
 and more. Would you like to browse the collection now? 

                            [ Yes ]   No
Selecting [ Yes ] and pressing Enter will be followed by the Package Selection screens:
Figure 2-47. Select Package Category
Only packages on the current installation media are available for installation at any given time.
All packages available will be displayed if All is selected or you can select a particular category. Highlight your selection with the arrow keys and press Enter.
A menu will display showing all the packages available for the selection made:
Figure 2-48. Select Packages
The bash shell is shown selected. Select as many as desired by highlighting the package and pressing the Space key. A short description of each package will appear in the lower left corner of the screen.
Pressing the Tab key will toggle between the last selected package, [ OK ], and [ Cancel ].
When you have finished marking the packages for installation, press Tab once to toggle to the [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.
The left and right arrow keys will also toggle between [ OK ] and [ Cancel ]. This method can also be used to select [ OK ] and press Enter to return to the Package Selection menu.
Figure 2-49. Install Packages
Use the Tab and arrow keys to select [ Install ] and press Enter. You will then need to confirm that you want to install the packages:
Figure 2-50. Confirm Package Installation
Selecting [ OK ] and pressing Enter will start the package installation. Installing messages will appear until completed. Make note if there are any error messages.
The final configuration continues after packages are installed. If you end up not selecting any packages, and wish to return to the final configuration, select Install anyways.

2.10.12 Add Users/Groups

You should add at least one user during the installation so that you can use the system without being logged in as root. The root partition is generally small and running applications as root can quickly fill it. A bigger danger is noted below:
User Confirmation Requested
 Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding
 at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since
 working as the "root" user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which
 adversely affect the entire system). 

                            [ Yes ]   No
Select [ Yes ] and press Enter to continue with adding a user.
Figure 2-51. Select User
Select User with the arrow keys and press Enter.
Figure 2-52. Add User Information
The following descriptions will appear in the lower part of the screen as the items are selected with Tab to assist with entering the required information:


Login ID
The login name of the new user (mandatory).
UID
The numerical ID for this user (leave blank for automatic choice).
Group
The login group name for this user (leave blank for automatic choice).
Password
The password for this user (enter this field with care!).
Full name
The user's full name (comment).
Member groups
The groups this user belongs to (i.e. gets access rights for).
Home directory
The user's home directory (leave blank for default).
Login shell
The user's login shell (leave blank for default, e.g. /bin/sh).
The login shell was changed from /bin/sh to /usr/local/bin/bash to use the bash shell that was previously installed as a package. Do not try to use a shell that does not exist or you will not be able to login. The most common shell used in the BSD-world is the C shell, which can be indicated as /bin/tcsh.
The user was also added to the wheel group to be able to become a superuser with root privileges.
When you are satisfied, press [ OK ] and the User and Group Management menu will redisplay:
Figure 2-53. Exit User and Group Management
Groups can also be added at this time if specific needs are known. Otherwise, this may be accessed through using sysinstall after installation is completed.
When you are finished adding users, select Exit with the arrow keys and press Enter to continue the installation.

2.10.13 Set the root Password

Message
 Now you must set the system manager's password.  
 This is the password you'll use to log in as "root". 

                         [ OK ] 

               [ Press enter or space ]
Press Enter to set the root password.
The password will need to be typed in twice correctly. Needless to say, make sure you have a way of finding the password if you forget. Notice that the password you type in is not echoed, nor are asterisks displayed.
New password:
Retype new password :
The installation will continue after the password is successfully entered.

2.10.14 Exiting Install

If you need to configure additional network services or any other configuration, you can do it at this point or after installation with sysinstall.
User Confirmation Requested
 Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
 options? 

                              Yes   [ No ]
Select [ No ] with the arrow keys and press Enter to return to the Main Installation Menu.
Figure 2-54. Exit Install
Select [X Exit Install] with the arrow keys and press Enter. You will be asked to confirm exiting the installation:
User Confirmation Requested
 Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot.

                            [ Yes ]   No
Select [ Yes ]. If you are booting from the CDROM drive the following message will remind you to remove the disk:
Message
 Be sure to remove the media from the drive.

                    [ OK ]
           [ Press enter or space ]
The CDROM drive is locked until the machine starts to reboot then the disk can be removed from drive (quickly). Press [ OK ] to reboot.
The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that may appear, see Section 2.10.16 for more details.

2.10.15 Configure Additional Network Services

Contributed by Tom Rhodes.Configuring network services can be a daunting task for new users if they lack previous knowledge in this area. Networking, including the Internet, is critical to all modern operating systems including FreeBSD; as a result, it is very useful to have some understanding FreeBSD's extensive networking capabilities. Doing this during the installation will ensure users have some understanding of the various services available to them.
Network services are programs that accept input from anywhere on the network. Every effort is made to make sure these programs will not do anything “harmful”. Unfortunately, programmers are not perfect and through time there have been cases where bugs in network services have been exploited by attackers to do bad things. It is important that you only enable the network services you know that you need. If in doubt it is best if you do not enable a network service until you find out that you do need it. You can always enable it later by re-running sysinstall or by using the features provided by the /etc/rc.conf file.
Selecting the Networking option will display a menu similar to the one below:
Figure 2-55. Network Configuration Upper-level
The first option, Interfaces, was previously covered during the Section 2.10.1, thus this option can safely be ignored.
Selecting the AMD option adds support for the BSD automatic mount utility. This is usually used in conjunction with the NFS protocol (see below) for automatically mounting remote file systems. No special configuration is required here.
Next in line is the AMD Flags option. When selected, a menu will pop up for you to enter specific AMD flags. The menu already contains a set of default options:
-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map
The -a option sets the default mount location which is specified here as /.amd_mnt. The -l option specifies the default log file; however, when syslogd is used all log activity will be sent to the system log daemon. The /host directory is used to mount an exported file system from a remote host, while /net directory is used to mount an exported file system from an IP address. The/etc/amd.map file defines the default options for AMD exports.
The Anon FTP option permits anonymous FTP connections. Select this option to make this machine an anonymous FTP server. Be aware of the security risks involved with this option. Another menu will be displayed to explain the security risks and configuration in depth.
The Gateway configuration menu will set the machine up to be a gateway as explained previously. This can be used to unset the Gateway option if you accidentally selected it during the installation process.
The Inetd option can be used to configure or completely disable the inetd(8) daemon as discussed above.
The Mail option is used to configure the system's default MTA or Mail Transfer Agent. Selecting this option will bring up the following menu:
Figure 2-56. Select a default MTA
Here you are offered a choice as to which MTA to install and set as the default. An MTA is nothing more than a mail server which delivers email to users on the system or the Internet.
Selecting Sendmail will install the popular sendmail server which is the FreeBSD default. The Sendmail local option will set sendmail to be the default MTA, but disable its ability to receive incoming email from the Internet. The other options here, Postfix and Exim act similar to Sendmail. They both deliver email; however, some users prefer these alternatives to the sendmail MTA.
After selecting an MTA, or choosing not to select an MTA, the network configuration menu will appear with the next option being NFS client.
The NFS client option will configure the system to communicate with a server via NFS. An NFS server makes file systems available to other machines on the network via the NFS protocol. If this is a stand-alone machine, this option can remain unselected. The system may require more configuration later; see Section 29.3 for more information about client and server configuration.
Below that option is the NFS server option, permitting you to set the system up as an NFS server. This adds the required information to start up the RPC remote procedure call services. RPC is used to coordinate connections between hosts and programs.
Next in line is the Ntpdate option, which deals with time synchronization. When selected, a menu like the one below shows up:
Figure 2-57. Ntpdate Configuration
From this menu, select the server which is the closest to your location. Selecting a close one will make the time synchronization more accurate as a server further from your location may have more connection latency.
The next option is the PCNFSD selection. This option will install the net/pcnfsd package from the Ports Collection. This is a useful utility which provides NFS authentication services for systems which are unable to provide their own, such as Microsoft's MS-DOS® operating system.
Now you must scroll down a bit to see the other options:
Figure 2-58. Network Configuration Lower-level
The rpcbind(8)rpc.statd(8), and rpc.lockd(8) utilities are all used for Remote Procedure Calls (RPC). The rpcbind utility manages communication between NFS servers and clients, and is required for NFS servers to operate correctly. The rpc.statd daemon interacts with the rpc.statd daemon on other hosts to provide status monitoring. The reported status is usually held in the/var/db/statd.status file. The next option listed here is the rpc.lockd option, which, when selected, will provide file locking services. This is usually used with rpc.statd to monitor what hosts are requesting locks and how frequently they request them. While these last two options are marvelous for debugging, they are not required for NFS servers and clients to operate correctly.
As you progress down the list the next item here is Routed, which is the routing daemon. The routed(8) utility manages network routing tables, discovers multicast routers, and supplies a copy of the routing tables to any physically connected host on the network upon request. This is mainly used for machines which act as a gateway for the local network. When selected, a menu will be presented requesting the default location of the utility. The default location is already defined for you and can be selected with the Enter key. You will then be presented with yet another menu, this time asking for the flags you wish to pass on to routed. The default is -q and it should already appear on the screen.
Next in line is the Rwhod option which, when selected, will start the rwhod(8) daemon during system initialization. The rwhod utility broadcasts system messages across the network periodically, or collects them when in “consumer” mode. More information can be found in the ruptime(1) and rwho(1) manual pages.
The next to the last option in the list is for the sshd(8) daemon. This is the secure shell server for OpenSSH and it is highly recommended over the standard telnet and FTP servers. The sshd server is used to create a secure connection from one host to another by using encrypted connections.
Finally there is the TCP Extensions option. This enables the TCP Extensions defined in RFC 1323 and RFC 1644. While on many hosts this can speed up connections, it can also cause some connections to be dropped. It is not recommended for servers, but may be beneficial for stand alone machines.
Now that you have configured the network services, you can scroll up to the very top item which is X Exit and continue on to the next configuration item or simply exit sysinstall in selecting X Exittwice then [X Exit Install].

2.10.16 FreeBSD Bootup

2.10.16.1 FreeBSD/i386 Bootup

If everything went well, you will see messages scroll off the screen and you will arrive at a login prompt. You can view the content of the messages by pressing Scroll-Lock and using PgUp andPgDn. Pressing Scroll-Lock again will return to the prompt.
The entire message may not display (buffer limitation) but it can be viewed from the command line after logging in by typing dmesg at the prompt.
Login using the username/password you set during installation (rpratt, in this example). Avoid logging in as root except when necessary.
Typical boot messages (version information omitted):
Copyright (c) 1992-2002 The FreeBSD Project. 
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
        The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. 

Timecounter "i8254"  frequency 1193182 Hz
CPU: AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (300.68-MHz 586-class CPU)
  Origin = "AuthenticAMD"  Id = 0x580  Stepping = 0
  Features=0x8001bf<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX> 
  AMD Features=0x80000800<SYSCALL,3DNow!> 
real memory  = 268435456 (262144K bytes) 
config> di sn0 
config> di lnc0 
config> di le0 
config> di ie0 
config> di fe0 
config> di cs0 
config> di bt0  
config> di aic0 
config> di aha0 
config> di adv0 
config> q 
avail memory = 256311296 (250304K bytes)
Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0491000. 
Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc049109c. 
md0: Malloc disk 
Using $PIR table, 4 entries at 0xc00fde60
npx0: <math processor> on motherboard 
npx0: INT 16 interface 
pcib0: <Host to PCI bridge> on motherboard 
pci0: <PCI bus> on pcib0 
pcib1: <VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge> at device 1.0 on pci0 
pci1: <PCI bus> on pcib1 
pci1: <Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator> at 0.0 irq 11 
isab0: <VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge> at device 7.0 on pci0 
isa0: <ISA bus> on isab0 
atapci0: <VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller> port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0 
ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0 
ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0 
uhci0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0 
usb0: <VIA 83C572 USB controller> on uhci0 
usb0: USB revision 1.0 
uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1 
uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered 
chip1: <VIA 82C586B ACPI interface> at device 7.3 on pci0 
ed0: <NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)> port 0xe800-0xe81f irq 9 at
device 10.0 on pci0 
ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit) 
isa0: too many dependant configs (8) 
isa0: unexpected small tag 14 
fdc0: <NEC 72065B or clone> at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on isa0
fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold 
fd0: <1440-KB 3.5" drive> on fdc0 drive 0 
atkbdc0: <keyboard controller (i8042)> at port 0x60-0x64 on isa0 
atkbd0: <AT Keyboard> flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0 
kbd0 at atkbd0 
psm0: <PS/2 Mouse> irq 12 on atkbdc0 
psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0 
vga0: <Generic ISA VGA> at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
sc0: <System console> at flags 0x1 on isa0 
sc0: VGA <16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300> 
sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0 
sio0: type 16550A 
sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0 
sio1: type 16550A 
ppc0: <Parallel port> at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0 
ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode 
ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold 
ppbus0: IEEE1284 device found /NIBBLE
Probing for PnP devices on ppbus0: 
plip0: <PLIP network interface> on ppbus0 
lpt0: <Printer> on ppbus0 
lpt0: Interrupt-driven port 
ppi0: <Parallel I/O> on ppbus0
ad0: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33 
ad2: 8063MB <IBM-DHEA-38451> [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33 
acd0: CDROM <DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD> at ata0-slave using PIO4 
Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a 
swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device 
Automatic boot in progress... 
/dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
/dev/ad0s1a: clean, 48752 free (552 frags, 6025 blocks, 0.9% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
/dev/ad0s1f: clean, 128997 free (21 frags, 16122 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1g: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1g: clean, 3036299 free (43175 frags, 374073 blocks, 1.3% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS 
/dev/ad0s1e: clean, 128193 free (17 frags, 16022 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
Doing initial network setup: hostname. 
ed0: flags=8843<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
        inet6 fe80::5054::5ff::fede:731b%ed0 prefixlen 64 tentative scopeid 0x1
        ether 52:54:05:de:73:1b
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384 
        inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8 
        inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 
        inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 
Additional routing options: IP gateway=YES TCP keepalive=YES
routing daemons:. 
additional daemons: syslogd. 
Doing additional network setup:. 
Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key 
Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. 
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub. 
The key fingerprint is: 
cd:76:89:16:69:0e:d0:6e:f8:66:d0:07:26:3c:7e:2d root@k6-2.example.com
 creating ssh DSA host key 
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key. 
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub. 
The key fingerprint is: 
f9:a1:a9:47:c4:ad:f9:8d:52:b8:b8:ff:8c:ad:2d:e6 root@k6-2.example.com.
setting ELF ldconfig path: /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib
/usr/local/lib 
a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout 
starting standard daemons: inetd cron sshd usbd sendmail.
Initial rc.i386 initialization:. 
rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused. 
Additional ABI support: linux. 
Local package initialization:. 
Additional TCP options:. 

FreeBSD/i386 (k6-2.example.com) (ttyv0)

login: rpratt 
Password:
Generating the RSA and DSA keys may take some time on slower machines. This happens only on the initial boot-up of a new installation. Subsequent boots will be faster.
If the X server has been configured and a Default Desktop chosen, it can be started by typing startx at the command line.

2.10.17 FreeBSD Shutdown

It is important to properly shutdown the operating system. Do not just turn off power. First, become a superuser by typing su at the command line and entering the root password. This will work only if the user is a member of the wheel group. Otherwise, login as root and use shutdown -h now.
The operating system has halted. 
Please press any key to reboot.
It is safe to turn off the power after the shutdown command has been issued and the message “Please press any key to reboot” appears. If any key is pressed instead of turning off the power switch, the system will reboot.
You could also use the Ctrl+Alt+Del key combination to reboot the system, however this is not recommended during normal operation.